Case Studies

Historical case studies are an essential element of understanding the national security system are intended to inform proposals for reforming US government interagency support for national security activities by identifying trends, recurring issues, challenges, solutions and lesson learning to responses to complex operational demands in the past. The following is a list of case studies conducted under the project. Under the direction of Richard Weitz of the Hudson Institute, these case studies have been selected to illustrate the enduring nature of interagency challenges and to explore how the United States responds to crises that have significant non-military dimensions.

The Andean Initiative and the Transnational Social Contract, 1989-1994 — Daniel Gibbons

INTRODUCTION: In 1986, National Security Decision Directive 221 declared drug production and traffic

The Bush Administration’s Democracy Promotion Efforts in Egypt — Edmund LaCour

INTRODUCTION: Towards the end of his first term, President George W. Bush declared that democracy pr

The NCIX and the National Counterintelligence Mission — Michelle Van Cleave

INTRODUCTION: Foreign intelligence services have stolen U.S. national security secrets for decades.

Managing U.S.-China Crises — Richard Weitz

INTRODUCTION: This case study examines the formation and implementation of U.S. policies in response

Choosing War: An Analysis of the Decision to Invade Iraq — Joseph J. Collins

INTRODUCTION: Despite impressive progress in security made by the Surge, the outcome of the Iraq War

Response to Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 — John Shortal, Center of Military History

INTRODUCTION: From 1918 to 1919, a particularly virulent strain of influenza struck the United State

Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations (Cold War) — Carnes Lord, Naval War College

INTRODUCTION: Strategic integration of American psychological-political activities during the Cold W

CORDS and the Vietnam Experience — Richard W. Stewart, Center of Military History

INTRODUCTION: After two failed attempts at interagency coordination during the Vietnam War, Presiden

1964 Alaskan Earthquake — Dwight A. Ink

INTRODUCTION: In 1964, an earthquake struck Alaska that measured 9.2 on the Richter scale, the most

East Timor, 1999 — Richard Weitz

INTRODUCTION: After the voters of East Timor overwhelmingly voted to separate from Indonesia in a re

The Interagency, Eisenhower, and the House of Saud — Christine R. Gilbert

INTRODUCTION: In 1956, U.S. policy makers saw American objectives in the Middle East foundering in t

Human Trafficking in the 21st Century — Daniel R. Langberg

INTRODUCTION: Human trafficking has become increasingly recognized as a vital U.S. national security

America’s Rejection of the Ottawa Treaty — Dennis Barlow

INTRODUCTION: In the summer of 1994, President Clinton delivered a speech to the UN General Assembly

Japan after World War II — Peter F. Schaefer and P. Clayton Schaefer

INTRODUCTION: U.S. planning for the occupation of Japan after WWII is an example of successful integ

Somalia: Did Leaders or the System Fail? — Christopher J. Lamb with Nicholas J. Moon

INTRODUCTION: In late 1992, the United States intervened in Somalia to prevent fractious warlords fr

Iran-Contra Affair — Alex Douville

INTRODUCTION: The Iran-Contra affair resulted from two separate operations: the sale of arms to Iran

U.S.–Central Asian Engagement — Evan Minsberg

INTRODUCTION: Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States has sought to engage the

Interagency Paralysis: Stagnation in Bosnia and Kosovo — Vicki J. Rast and Dylan Lee Lehrke

INTRODUCTION: U.S. government security practices and structures proved ineffective in managing the b

U.S. Interagency Efforts to Combat International Terrorism Through Foreign Capacity Building Programs — Celina B. Realuyo and Michael B. Kraft

INTRODUCTION: For several decades, the U.S. government has sought to improve the counterterrorist ca

Future Defense Industry Scenario — Sheila Ronis

INTRODUCTION: In this future scenario, Chinese aggression towards Taiwan provides the impetus for Si

U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement — Patrick Mendis and Leah Green

INTRODUCTION: The proposed U.S.-Indian civil nuclear cooperation accord represents a transformation

Failures at the Nexus of Health and Homeland Security: The 2007 Andrew Speaker Case — Elin Gursky and Sweta Batni

INTRODUCTION: In spring 2007, Andrew Speaker confounded public health, homeland security, customs an

The Crisis in U.S. Public Diplomacy: The Demise of USIA — Juliana Geran Pilon and Nicholas J. Cull

INTRODUCTION: The transfer of the United States Information Agency (USIA) into the Department of Sta

The Banality of the Interagency: U.S. Inaction in the Rwanda Genocide — Dylan Lee Lehrke

INTRODUCTION: During the 1994 Rwanda genocide, killers with machetes moved more rapidly and with gre

The Vice President and Foreign Policy: From “the most insignificant office” to Gore as Russia Czar — Aaron Mannes

INTRODUCTION: The Clinton administration’s Russia policy specifically empowered a vice president,

The Asian Financial Crisis: Managing Complex Threats to Global Economic Stability — Rozlyn Engel

INTRODUCTION: The forces of international financial crisis can inflict real damage on societies, con

Building and Maintaining the Gulf War Coalition — Ryan Arant

INTRODUCTION: The pretext for the Persian Gulf War and the formulation of the global coalition again

The 2002 Coup Attempt against Hugo Chavez — Tristan Abbey

INTRODUCTION: On April 11, 2002, top Venezuelan military commanders removed President Hugo Chavez fr

The Carter Administration and the Iranian Hostage Crisis Rescue Mission — Jay Bachar

INTRODUCTION: On November 4, 1979, the U.S. Embassy in Iran was attacked by a student mob that seize

War On Drugs: Lessons Learned From 35 Years of Fighting Asymmetric Threats — Curt Klun

SUMMARY: Our future national security structure must not only meet the traditional state-to-state mi

Countering Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions, 2002-2008 — Jamie Boulding

INTRODUCTION: In 2003, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) discovered that Iran’s nuclea

The 2003 U.S. Intervention in Liberia — Henrik Bliddal

INTRODUCTION: In the summer of 2003, Liberia was unraveling. Since an intermittent civil war began i

Pre-9/11 Intelligence and the Creation of the Director of National Intelligence — Jessie Daniels

INTRODUCTION: On September 11, 2001, the terrorist group Al-Qaeda carried out a series of coordinate

“Improvising Furiously:” The Effort to Train Iraq’s Police — Thomas Dybicz

INTRODUCTION: Training an indigenous police force has been one of the seminal challenges of the Iraq

U.S. Counterterrorism Operations in Somalia and the Horn of Africa, Post-2001 — Paul Delventhal

INTRODUCTION: In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, the Horn of Africa received renewed interest f

The U.S. Role in the Northern Ireland Peace Process — Jessie Daniels

INTRODUCTION: From the late 1960s until the 1990s Northern Ireland experienced “the Troubles”—

U.S. Strategy in the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict — Irina Ghaplanyan

INTRODUCTION: Struggle over territorial control of Nagorno-Karabakh has proven one of the most intra

U.S. Interagency Response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Carlene Gong

INTRODUCTION: On December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the west coast of the Band

The Reagan Administration’s Response to the Crisis in Lebanon — Aref N. Hassan

INTRODUCTION: After absorbing many years of cross border attacks from Lebanon by the Palestinian Lib

Establishing U.S. Africa Command — Kimberly Nastasi Klein

INTRODUCTION: While lacking a dedicated combatant command, Africa had long been relegated to a tange

SALT I: A Lesson in Security Policy — Matthew P. Jennings

INTRODUCTION: The Cold War was characterized by distrust, arms races, and competing ideologies. Ther

U.S. Response to the 2001 Anthrax Incidents — Erin C. Hoffman

INTRODUCTION: The anthrax attacks during September and October 2001 caused widespread panic across t

Integrating Civilian and Military Efforts in Provincial Reconstruction Teams — David Kobayashi

INTRODUCTION: Since their 2002 formation in Afghanistan, Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) have

Losing Iran: The Accidental Abandonment of an Ally through Interagency Failure — Jesse Paul Lehrke

INTRODUCTION: From the end of the Second World War until the Revolution of 1978/79, Iran was a key A

The Berlin Blockade: A First Test for the National Security Act — Sebastian Lederer

INTRODUCTION: On June 24, 1948, the Soviet leadership ordered a blockade of all ground entryways int

The Counternarcotics Effort in Afghanistan — Matthew Korade

INTRODUCTION: With roots that predate the Soviet-Afghan War, Afghanistan’s opium trade has explode

U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East after 9/11 — Justin Logan

INTRODUCTION: In the wake of the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, the question

The Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS), NSPD 44, DOD Directive 3000.05 — Christopher D. Mallard

INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, the United States was involved in multiple post-war stability operat

The Role of the National Security Adviser and NSC in the Establishment of Relations with the People’s Republic of China — Todd Lorimor

INTRODUCTION: President Richard M. Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.) in F

Balancing Democracy Promotion and the Global War on Terror in Pakistan — Don Rassler

INTRODUCTION: Soon after the GWOT began, President George W. Bush launched Washington’s freedom ag

Countering Terrorist Financing — Christopher J. Lamb with Alexandra A. Singer

INTRODUCTION: The attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrated the terrible costs of a decade of weak U

Reaction to Sputnik under the Eisenhower Administration — Brett Swaney

INTRODUCTION: On October 4, 1957, the first artificial satellite was launched into orbit. The 58cm s

Bay of Pigs Debacle: Failed Interaction of the Intelligence Community and the Executive — Taylor V. Smith

INTRODUCTION: From its inception in 1947, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has been shrouded in

Brinkmanship in the Straits: The 1995–1996 China–Taiwan Missile Crisis — Hsueh-Ting Wu

INTRODUCTION: The 1995-1996 Taiwan Straits Missile Crisis occurred at the height of escalating tensi

The Gulf of Tonkin Incident — Jessica D. Tacka

INTRODUCTION: On August 2, 1964, the USS Maddox was patrolling waters in the Gulf of Tonkin when thr

North Korea’s Nuclear Programs and American Policy Formation — Alexander von Rosenbach

INTRODUCTION: North Korea’s nuclear ambitions have been a thorn in the side of four successive Ame

The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Close Call Avoided by Successful Strategizing — Rebecca White

INTRODUCTION: On October 16, 1962, the United States received intelligence which confirmed that, des

Operation Urgent Fury: The 1983 U.S. Intervention in Grenada — Joseph Washecheck

INTRODUCTION: In October 1983, a leadership crisis within Grenada’s People’s Revolutionary Gover

Civil-Military Coordination and the 1994 Intervention in Haiti — William K. Warriner

INTRODUCTION: The 1994 U.S.-led intervention in Haiti occurred as a result of a 1991 coup by the Hai

U.S. Response to Humanitarian Disaster: Hurricane Mitch in Central America — David Wrathall

INTRODUCTION: In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch, the most powerful Atlantic hurricane in history, sla

The Kennedy Administration and American Military Assistance to Laos — Christine Gilbert

INTRODUCTION: From 1954 until the mid-1970s, Laos was the scene of substantial American political an

Promises and Pitfalls of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace — Panayotis A. Yannakogeorgos

INTRODUCTION: Human activity is increasingly being transferred to, and becoming reliant on, cyberspa

Global Warming and National Security — Tianchi Wu

INTRODUCTION: Climate change is a far reaching hazard of nature rather than a threat emanating from

The Suez Crisis: Fighting the Cold War in the Middle East — Marianna I. Gurtovnik

INTRODUCTION: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser declared on July 26, 1956 that he would national

The 1970s Energy Crisis and National Energy Policy Creation — Dylan Lee Lehrke

INTRODUCTION: The energy crisis of the 1970s was rooted in America’s increasing dependence on fore

U.S. Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy Meets the Pakistani Weapons Program — Edward A. Corcoran

INTRODUCTION: Examining the dynamic between U.S.-Pakistani relations and the American response to Pa

An Analysis of Counterterror Practice Failure: The Case of the Fadlallah Assassination Attempt — Richard Chasdi

INTRODUCTION: On March 8, 1985, an explosion rocked the Bir al-‘Abd quarter of Beirut near the hom